defence industrial environments
Bernabé Muñoz Senior Security Consultant

The importance of defence in depth in industrial environments

In today's era, cyber security has become critical and paramount for any organisation, especially in industrial environments. Increasing digitisation and the interconnection of industrial systems and OT networks have led to a significant increase in attacks. Given this reality, there is a need to implement defence-in-depth measures to safeguard data integrity and protect industrial systems from potential vulnerabilities. 

This defence in depth emerges as a key strategy in the field of industrial cyber security. It is the implementation of multiple layers of security in a system, so that if one layer is compromised, the other layers continue to protect the system. It is like a fortress with impenetrable walls, where each layer adds additional protection and ensures the continuity of critical operations. 

In other words, defence in depth mitigates risks by establishing a holistic and strategic approach to security. It is not based solely on a single barrier or solution, but on the combination of different security measures acting together. This ranges from firewalls and intrusion detection systems to access and authentication policies, employee awareness and constant network monitoring. 

Implementing multiple layers of security not only makes attack attempts more difficult, but also enables early detection of threats, which is critical in industrial environments where speed of response and minimisation of impact are crucial. In addition, this strategy provides greater resilience to the constant advances and evolution of techniques and tactics used by cybercriminals. 

Defence-in-depth is the implementation of multiple layers of security in a system

In industrial environments, this defence in depth is essential and effective, as complex and critical systems that underpin the production and operation of the organisation must be protected. Disruption or compromise of these systems could have catastrophic consequences, both in terms of loss of sensitive data and disruption of essential operations. 

In order to establish a sound cyber security strategy, it is essential to delve into the world of the assets present in the organisation. Understanding and assessing these assets not only gives us a clear picture of the systems that require enhanced protection, but also allows us to draw a detailed organisational map. 

By identifying the services exposed to the outside, a solid security barrier is established that acts as a protective shield. This effective measure allows us to define and strengthen the organisation's digital boundary, ensuring that critical systems and sensitive data are protected from external threats. In this sense, it is a proactive approach that allows anticipating possible security breaches, identifying weaknesses, and taking preventive measures to strengthen them. By understanding and assessing the assets present in the organisation, a solid basis is established for the implementation of appropriate and customised security measures. 

In addition, this approach not only gives us greater clarity on which systems require priority attention, but also allows us to allocate resources more efficiently, focusing on those critical assets that require enhanced protection. 

cyber security industry

Firewalls and network segmentation 

Firewalls and network segmentation are two fundamental pillars in the defence in depth strategy, which help to strengthen the security of systems and protect data integrity in an industrial environment. 

First, firewalls act as digital gatekeepers, filtering and controlling network traffic. These security barriers allow the establishment of rules and policies that determine what type of communication is allowed and what type of communication is blocked, thus preventing unauthorised access, and preventing external attacks. By implementing firewalls at different points in the network, an additional layer of protection is added, making it more difficult for attackers to break through an initial layer of security. In addition, firewalls can generate activity logs that facilitate early detection of possible intrusions or anomalous behaviour in the network. 

Network segmentation, on the other hand, consists of dividing the physical network into logical sub-networks isolated from each other. Each department or area of the organisation is placed on a separate sub-network, allowing access between them to be restricted and limiting the spread of potential attacks. This means that in the event of a system or department being compromised, the damage is limited to that sub-network, minimising the impact on the rest of the network, and protecting the organisation's critical systems. Network segmentation also facilitates the implementation of more precise access policies, assigning specific permissions and restrictions to each sub-network according to the needs and level of security required. 

Together, firewalls and network segmentation establish a robust defence in the layered model. Firewalls act as an ingress and egress filter, controlling network traffic, while network segmentation creates isolated compartments, reducing the attack surface and limiting the impact of potential intrusions. 

Updates systems

Upgrading equipment plays a crucial role in the defence in depth model, as it ensures that systems are protected against the latest known vulnerabilities and reduces exposure to potential cyber-attacks. 

Keeping hardware, servers, corporate software, embedded systems and devices up to date is essential to strengthen the organisation's security. As cybercriminals constantly develop new techniques and exploits, software manufacturers and vendors release updates and security patches to fix discovered vulnerabilities. These updates include security enhancements, bug fixes and the implementation of additional protective measures. 

Upgrading ensures the protection against vulnerabilities and reduces exposure to potential cyber-attacks

Regular updating of equipment not only ensures that the latest versions of software and operating systems are used, but also ensures that security settings and configurations are up to date and effective. In addition, many updates contain fixes for known vulnerabilities, helping to close potential security holes that cybercriminals could exploit. It is important to implement an efficient upgrade management process, including regular monitoring of available upgrades, planning and scheduling of upgrades to minimise disruptions to operation, and performing compatibility and stability testing before applying upgrades in production environments. 


Endpoint protection is another key player in the defence in depth model, as end devices, such as computers and mobile devices, represent points of entry and vulnerability in an organisation's environment. To ensure security in this area, there are a number of effective solutions that can be implemented. 

One of the key solutions is the implementation of Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) solutions. These solutions offer advanced real-time protection for end devices on the network. Using techniques such as behavioural analysis and machine learning, they can proactively detect and block threats, even those that are unknown or emerging. In addition, EDR solutions enable rapid response and recovery of compromised systems, thus minimising the impact of an attack. They also implement up-to-date anti-virus and anti-malware solutions.  

The implementation of workplace safety policies is also crucial. These policies may include restrictions on the installation of unauthorised software, setting secure passwords, implementing policies on the use of removable devices, and enabling personal firewall features on devices. These measures help to prevent threats and reduce the risk of unauthorised intrusions. 

Monitoring and log management systems

Monitoring and log management systems play a crucial role in the defence in depth model. These tools allow constant monitoring of network traffic, detection of anomalous behaviour and generation of security alerts in real time. In addition, SIEM (Security Information and Event Management) and SOC (Security Operations Centre) systems provide the ability to analyse and correlate security events, facilitating rapid identification and response to potential threats. Monitoring and log management ensure the visibility needed to maintain a secure and resilient environment in the face of cyber-attacks. 

Security copies and backups

Backups ensure the availability and integrity of data, as well as the ability to recover from possible incidents. Regular backups of critical data are essential. These copies are stored in secure locations isolated from the main network to avoid compromise in the event of an attack. In situations such as a ransomware attack, backups allow data to be restored to a previous state, thus minimising loss and disruption. 

The implementation of backup management policies is important, including regular scheduling, data integrity validation and recovery testing to ensure effectiveness. The choice of backup strategy depends on the needs of each organisation. It may involve the use of cloud storage, tape systems or external disks. Not least, it is essential to ensure the security of backups through techniques such as encryption and access control. 

Cyber resilience and Disaster Recovery Plan

Cyber resilience and Disaster Recovery Planning (DRP) play a key role in the defence in depth model. These measures ensure an organisation's ability to recover quickly and effectively from cyber incidents and guarantee business continuity. 

Cyber resilience refers to an organisation's ability to resist, adapt to and recover from cyber-attacks. It involves the implementation of prevention, detection, and response measures, as well as resilience and business continuity. Cyber resilience involves taking a holistic approach to security, which includes not only technology and tools, but also processes, policies and a culture of security. 

Cyber resilience and DRP ensure a firm's ability to recover from cyber incidents and guarantee business continuity

Disaster Recovery Planning is an integral part of cyber resilience. This plan documents the procedures and actions to be taken in the event of a major incident. It includes the assignment of roles and responsibilities, steps to mitigate and contain the incident, restoration of systems and data, and communication with stakeholders. Effective DRP ensures that the organisation can recover quickly and efficiently, minimising business impact and reducing downtime. 

Both cyber resilience and PRA must be designed, implemented and tested on a regular basis. This involves conducting risk assessments, identifying critical assets, establishing contingency plans and conducting incident response drills. In addition, it is essential to have a clear and effective communication strategy, both internally and externally, to inform stakeholders about the actions taken and mitigate any reputational impact. 

The employee: awareness and training 

Awareness and training are key aspects of the defence in depth model, as the users and employees of an organisation are a crucial link in cyber security. 

Awareness-raising involves educating users about cyber security best practices and making them aware of the risks associated with digital threats. This includes identifying phishing emails, password protection, secure use of mobile devices and caution when sharing sensitive information. Awareness helps to create a culture of security in the organisation, where everyone is aware of his or her responsibility to protect the company's assets and data. 

Training complements awareness by providing employees with technical cybersecurity skills and knowledge. This may include training programmes on threat identification, safe use of tools and systems, and appropriate response to security incidents. Regular and up-to-date training ensures that employees are prepared to meet the challenges and constant changes in the cyber security landscape. 

Both awareness-raising and training should be an integral part of the organisation's security strategy and not a one-off event. Regular training and constant updating are essential to keep employees informed and empowered in the protection of the organisation's resources and data. 

In short, the defence-in-depth model is an essential strategy in industrial cyber security. It encompasses multiple layers of security, from asset understanding and infrastructure protection, to the implementation of firewalls and network segmentation. It also includes equipment upgrades, workstation protection with EDR solutions, monitoring and log management, and user awareness and training. This holistic approach strengthens the organisation's security posture, protects critical systems and safeguards data integrity. By implementing the defence in depth model, organisations can mitigate the risks of cyber-attacks, maintain operational continuity and ensure protection in an increasingly complex and threatening digital environment.